Australia might have the answer to herbicide-resistant \"superweeds\"

by:BrightMart     2020-03-07
In December, C.
Douglas \"Bubba\" Simons III leaves his corn and soybean farm in northwest Mississippi for dry wheat fields in Western Australia, which is considered the capital of the world\'s herbicide resistance.
Australian farmers are plagued by unwelcome intruders, such as annual multi-spend oats and wild radishes resistant to several herbicides, who are forced to develop new weed management methods
And their seeds.
It\'s not easy.
Bayer said that due to increased management and production losses, farmers there paid about £ 27% more per acre.
Simmons and three other Americans visited several farms in southern Western Australia. S.
Farmers and weed scientists.
The trip was organized by the US Soybean Commission and an industry in Australia to coordinate the \"action plan\"
Lead information activities.
Simmons, eager to learn from growers facing similar weed problems, was inspired by Australian ingenuity.
Whether their mechanical and cultural solutions will work in the United States remains to be seen. S.
The scenery in Australia is much drier.
Read more civilized diet: New research to explore the continued impact of racism on the United StatesS.
Simmons is worried about the agricultural landscape in the United States. S.
Farmers face the same fate.
\"I think Mississippi may even be considered the ground zero for the number of herbicides --
\"We have weed resistance,\" he said . \".
\"This is an ongoing battle starting in the medium term. March to mid-November.
The long growing season and warm climate in some parts of the South have allowed harmful weeds to thrive.
But the \"super weed\" that refused to die when spraying the herbicide has taken over crop land across the United StatesS.
Farm areas and other places.
Globally, 255 different weeds are resistant to 163 different herbicides, but the most worrying is that 43 are resistant to glyphosate (widely used herbicide Nongda)
These weeds compete with crops for space, water and nutrients in the soil
They began to affect the output of many farmers.
For decades, weed control has simply replaced one herbicide with another, leading to what some weed scientists call the \"herbicide-resistant treadmill.
So it\'s no wonder American farmers are looking elsewhere for clues on how to rethink ways to manage weeds.
\"My older or older farmers have experienced the golden age of the development of herbicides,\" Simmons said . \" He describes the reliable production of new chemicals that shape his agricultural career.
For 30 years, the industry has had new chemical solutions whenever new weed problems arise.
But the new chemicals have been dry for a while.
Growers are becoming more aware that for various reasons, there are few effective new herbicides.
First, the company has greatly reduced its efforts to discover new herbicides.
Secondly, the use of the molecular weakness of the plant by the herbicide may have found the best target point.
Chemical company FMC recently issued an announcement saying there should be two new herbicides
One Rice, one corn and one soybean.
Listed in the next 5 to 10 years.
According to the international survey of herbicide-resistant weeds, there are 17 glyphosate-
Resistant weeds in the United StatesS.
Palmer amaranth is a radical weed that destroys crops in the south and the Middle West and is one of the worst weeds.
Each plant can produce at least 100,000 seeds, which, if not controlled, can grow taller than some.
Estimates of future cost of herbicide resistance in the United StatesS. are daunting.
\"If farmers do not deal with resistance, they will suffer a significant loss,\" said Kristie Springer, a Michigan State University professor and weed extension expert, who also went to Australia.
She and her colleagues published a study that found dried bean farmers in the United States. S.
An average yield of 71% will be lost.
Or more than 2 billion pounds of beans and $0. 622 billion a year.
If weeds are not controlled.
The fact that so many farmers specifically use so much glyphosate to control weeds, as seen by Prage and others, puts tremendous pressure on weeds to choose.
The use of glyphosate introduced in the 1990 s soared in 2006, when it was applied to 70 million acres of Nongda soybeans and about 35 million acres of Nongda corn.
In the face of this widespread and repeated use, it is only a matter of time before weeds can produce resistance --
There is little diversity in weed management.
The corn band monocrops accelerated weed resistance.
Weed scientists at Iowa State University said: \"You can\'t design a planting system for the survival of weeds better than our planting system in Iowa, where we only grow corn and soybeans ,\", bob Hazler
\"The only thing that continues is the herbicide, and now we have inadvertently chosen some weeds that are good at developing resistance to the new herbicide.
He saw big problems.
Although glyphosate is still being used on a large scale, companies such as Bayer and Syngenta are still developing genetically modified seeds to tolerate older, potentially more harmful, uneco-friendly ones including 2-4
D and wheat straw for glyphosate treatmentResistant to weeds.
One thing is clear no matter who you ask: there is no doubt that weed control will require more management.
\"We really need to think about other methods,\" said Mr . \".
It\'s not easy.
The farm is getting bigger and bigger, so it is not clear what physical methods can be adopted in the current agricultural system.
For example, Jason Norsworthy, a weed scientist at the University of Arkansas, found that a cereal rye-covered crop suppressed about 83% of Palmer\'s amaranth.
But their use among farmers has grown slowly.
Different crop rotations will greatly simplify our weed problems, says Hartzler. But in the U. S.
Corn Belt, it is very difficult to diversify without the existing market for other crops, most farmers have basicallyvery-diverse corn-
Soybean rotation.
\"There is only one problem --
\"We need a crop that can grow more than 3 million acres,\" he added . \".
Some point out that crops like cannabis are a way to increase rotation.
However, Hartzler said that at this time, economics does not work for any other crop that is large enough to control weeds.
As the saying goes, need is the mother of invention.
Farmers in Western Australia must come up with a variety of creative tools to fight the herbicide. Resistant to weeds.
Can the United States adopt some of these methods? S.
It may be farmers, but there is a big difference in the agricultural system.
Western Australia has more than 10 million acres of dry wheat and barley, mainly for export.
Wheat alone makes America. S. $1. 4-2.
1 billion in Western Australia.
The farm there is larger than the average size of the United States. S.
About 2,500 to 37,000 acres of farm.
Given the low rainfall in the area and the lack of alternative crops, Australia had to come up with a way to continue growing wheat after weeds became a major problem.
Read more civilized Diet: How Oregon ranchers build soil health
A powerful regional food system, with dense weed growth, can produce up to 45,000 seeds per square meter, while more oats rapidly evolve to resist traditional herbicides.
In the past 20 years, Australian farmers have developed many
Mechanical and cultivation weeding strategies to manage weeds during harvest. “Our mantra —
Keep the weed seed bank as low as possible, \"said Lisa Mayer, manager of the Australian Herbicide Resistance Initiative, and WeedSmart, University of Western Australia.
In other words, control these seeds and prevent them from becoming new weeds.
To this end, farmers have developed methods to capture and destroy seeds.
Some people pile the wheat grain shell behind the combine harvester and can collect or burn it.
They also use the Harrington weed seed Analyzer, a device to crush the weed seeds when the grain is harvested.
These methods have proven to kill 95-
99% of annual weed seed yield.
Combined with some herbicides, the number of weeds has been reduced to about 1 plant per square meter, which reduces the possibility of resistance evolution.
Despite their success, the weed invasion has cost Australia\'s grain industry more than the United States. S. $2.
3 billion of annual income losses and expenses are equivalent to the loss of income and expenditure in the United States. S.
Mayer says grain growers are $146 per acre.
Australian farmers are also trying to increase the competitive power of crops by experimenting with row spacing and higher planting density.
They are cultivating crop varieties to improve their competitive power with weeds.
Mayer said Australian farmers only began to diversify their weed management practices without other options.
\"It\'s not that researchers have come up with tools to fight the resistance of the herbicide,\" Mayer said . \".
\"This is a farmer because they have a long time --term outlook.
\"Most Australian farmers own the land they plant, which is in sharp contrast to the United States. S.
There, she said, farmers rented a larger proportion of available arable land, and they had to produce profitable crops and provide returns to landowners.
There are few new herbicides, if any, \"the United StatesS.
Hit the wall now.
And began to notice
\"Weeding tools can increase the diversity of crop planting systems,\" says Herbic . \".
Shortly after Norsworthy published his trip to Australia in February 20, he began to try to destroy the weeds with a seed, especially in Harrington.
While burning is effective, it also brings some drawbacks, including air pollution and loss of some crop residue, which otherwise adds nutrients to the soil.
Although the early prototype of the Harrington Seed will fight against high moisture in the United StatesS.
Woolworthy and his colleagues finally proved that this method is very effective.
\"If we can kill 97
\"99% of the weed seeds go through the combine harvester, which will have a far-reaching impact, eliminating the stress of selecting up to 99% of the herbicide in the field,\" said Norsworthy . \".
These numbers are promising, but time is the most important.
Hartzler estimates that the United StatesS.
In five to ten years, farmers may stand in Australia\'s shoes.
Woolworthy published a paper in which he introduced a Palmer amaranth plant into four different cotton fields with nothing but glyphosate sprayed.
In the competition for weeds, the crop failed in three years.
\"There is no silver bullet,\" said Norsworthy . \".
\"If we want to succeed for a long time,
\"The term is that we need [to] reduce weed seeds in the soil,\" he added, \"it will take herbicides, sometimes farming, destroying seeds and covering crops.
Hartzler agreed.
\"We told farmers that they had to take a step back and use methods such as mechanical weeding,\" he said . \".
The problem is that in recent decades, many farmers have reduced farming in order to improve soil health and reduce erosion, hartzler added, it is difficult to rely on farming, because covering the fields with sprayers is at least five times faster than the tillers.
One of the great things he learned from his Australian counterparts, Simmons said, is that farmers need to help develop new weeding tools.
Although often
Simmons said that the pressure to continue to buy herbicides is high, and growers cannot continue like there is only one tool in the toolbox.
\"Growers should take more responsibility to address this issue, not just relying on industry or researchers, but sharing responsibility with them,\" Simmons said . \".
Custom message
Chat Online 编辑模式下无法使用
Chat Online inputting...