During the fruiting stage of some fruit trees, such as citrus, apples, grapes, pears, etc., growers can't ignore the impact of fruit cracking while expecting a good harvest.
Major factors cause fruits cracking
1. Climate and Moisture
Because of high temperature and drought, leaves transpiration improves, while cell osmotic pressure raises. At the same time, water runs short and sugar content goes high. Under this condition, once heavy rain suddenly falls, fruits quickly absorb water from roots and fruits enlarge rapidly and break through skin. Besides, rainwater falling on skin directly penetrate into fruit, and cells change the level of osmotic pressure to absorb more water. At the end, fruits start enlarging and cracking.
When deformed fruits enlarge rapidly in late stage of fruiting, uneven skin thickness causes uneven tension on fruits skin, lead to fruits cracking.
3. Nutrition deficiency
First of all, calcium deficiency: calcium stabilizes cells membranes in crops and maintains cells structure. Therefore, when fruits flesh enlarges rapidly, appropriate calcium supplementation strengthens fruits skin.
Secondly, potassium deficiency: high nitrogen and potassium deficiency make fruits skin thinner. Due to this case, fruits are easy to crack. Application with appropriate potassium can help fruit trees to enhance resistance to diseases.
4. Hormone imbalance
The development of seeds in nucleated fruits produces gibberellin, which stimulates growth of fruits. This causes faster growth than skin, eventually, fruits start cracking.
In conclusion, it is necessary to maintain a dynamic balance between the growth of fruits skin and flesh.
Effective methods to reduce fruit cracking
1. Maintain water balance in soil
First, it is necessary to dig a ditch in order to drain water in time when too much rain falls.
Second, soil loosening and roots pruning: Roots pruning before rainstorms or flood watering can reduce roots' absorption of water and decrease transpiration intensity. Meanwhile this can maintain proper water transport speed, avoid excessive water consumption of trees. By doing so, Fruit cracking could be effectively reduced.
2. Nutrition supplementation:
First and foremost, apply boron fertilizer during flowering stage to reduce deformed flowers.
Secondly, apply high potassium fertilizer before the start of flower and fruit preservation period to supplement potassium.
Thirdly, appropriately supplement calcium fertilizer, spray it on foliar surface during fruit most rapid enlarging period to stabilize fruits cells membrane. On the other hand, cells wall toughness improves and fruits skin strengthens.
3. Growth regulation:
At the beginning of fruiting stage, spray ‘Fruitsome’ to prevent fruits cracking by balancing growth of fruits flesh and skin.
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