Taking the vast variety of potential dangers from
The harvested stalk of millet plants should be used up as soon as possible and in any case before the end of the winter season as the stalks harbor various stages of borer pests. For the same reason as mentioned above, the stubble's should be dug out and destroyed. It might be advisable to plough the fields just before the beginning of the summer season so as to uproot the stubble's which should be collected and used up as fuel or burnt if not needed as fuel, and also to disturb and expose the egg masses of grasshopper pests and pupae of caterpillar pests to sun and predators. The bund of the fields and the ground the trees and fences should also be scraped, ploughed or hoed as these places specially harbor these pest stages. Also, the grasses on the bund should be used up or destroyed along with the pest stages. While sowing the crop use a higher seed-rate so as to be able to uproot later the plants affected by insects without decreasing the plant population below the optimum level. The crop should be inspected from the very early stages for the appearance of (a) dead-hearts due to borers of any kind, (b) moths emerging from pupae which have been under diapasons and which escaped operation No.2, (c) egg-massed laid by these pests, and (d) other external feeders. In the same round of operations the dead-hearts, the egg-masses and the sluggish moths should be collected and destroyed. Chemical control operations should be carried out according to the nature and intensity of the pest. For sucking insects, a strong contact insecticide should be used. But if there is also an infestation of leaf-eaters like caterpillars and grasshoppers, then a more persistent insecticide should be used. Grasshoppers and cutworms can also be controlled by poison-baiting. Precautionary operations Nos.1 to 4, if carried out properly on a large-scale co-operative basis, should not allow the borer population to build up beyond tolerable limits. If, however, due to some reasons these precautionary measures are not practicable and yet intensive chemical operations are feasible, then a suitable persistent insecticide should be applied in such a way as to poison the just-hatched larvae of the borers during the few minutes when they crawl on the surface of the plant before boring into the plant tissue. For this purpose, insecticidal application, preferably as sprays or granules, should be carried out just before the peak period of hatching. The peak period can be determined by means of a bio meter for the species which it is most necessary to control. This chemical control should be integrated with other methods of control.