Recently, temperatures have risen quickly, and overwintering pests and diseases have started to emerge. Seizing the favorable opportunity in early spring to implement pest and disease prevention and control measures is the foundation for controlling pest and disease damage throughout the year. It is crucial for reducing the pest and disease base in orchards and reducing the degree of pest and disease occurrence in the middle and later stages. All regions should pay attention to orchard pest and disease prevention and control in the spring, and effectively implement key measures to lay a good foundation for increasing orchard yield and efficiency throughout the year.
1. Main Pests and Diseases:
In early spring, peach orchards mainly focus on preventing and controlling pests and diseases such as peach fruit moth, aphid, green plant bug, scale insect, bacterial (fungal) perforated disease, and branch blight. Rain-sheltered grape orchards mainly focus on preventing and controlling pests and diseases such as green plant bugs, scale insects, gray mold, and powdery mildew. In open-field grape orchards, the emphasis is on preventing diseases such as downy mildew, gray mold, and black spot disease. In early spring, pear orchards mainly focus on preventing and controlling pests and diseases such as pear psylla, scale insect, pear aphid, pear rust disease, and pear black spot disease. The majority of pests and pathogens overwinter in dead branches and leaves, dead fruits, bark cracks, weeds, soil, and other places. They emerge and spread when the environmental conditions become suitable in spring. At this time, there are no apparent signs of pest and disease damage in the orchard, and the pathogenic bacteria have not yet spread. As a result, the pest population is relatively stable, making this the ideal time to prevent and control pests and diseases.
2. Pest Control Techniques
Firstly, ensure orchard cleanliness. For orchards that were not cleaned during the winter, it is necessary to remove weeds and fallen leaves in the orchard before the trees bud. The bark of trees infected with bacteria and insects should also be scraped off, and the remaining branches, leaves, and bark should be disposed of outside the orchard or crushed and returned to the field. This helps to reduce the incidence of pests and diseases in the orchard in the later stages.
Secondly, use pesticide to clean the orchard before the trees bud. During the period of early March, when the temperature is above 4°C and the weather is sunny, spray the orchard with a preventive dose of 3-5 times lime sulfur solution before the flower buds of peach, pear, and other trees appear, and before the grape clusters begin to bloom. When spraying, comprehensively control the entire plant, including the roots, the base of the plant, the surface, and the surrounding weeds. For pear orchards, concentrate on controlling the winter hosts of pear rust disease, such as dragon spruce and pine spruce, nearby. Pay attention to the safety of using lime sulfur solution. It should not be mixed with acidic pesticides, and other chemical agents should be used after an interval of 20 days.
Thirdly, the application of pre-flowering chemicals to prevent pests and diseases. 1-2 doses of pesticides can be used from the budding stage to the pre-flowering stage to control pest and disease damage. Through field trials, micro pests such as aphids, green plant bug, pear psyllids, etc., can be treated with pesticides such as Chlorfenapyr, Clothianidin, Bifenthrin, and Dinotefuran. For disease prevention and control, broad-spectrum protective fungicides can be used, such as Pyraclostrobin, Epoxiconazole, Trifloxystrobin, Tebuconazole and Cymoxanil. Choose sunny days for spraying, try to choose compound formulations to prevent multiple pests and diseases, and pay attention to rotating the use of pesticides.