These are: Hymenoptera (bees, wasps and ants),

by:BrightMart     2020-05-02
The most efficient pollinators are the bees of many species, especially honeybees or honeybee. Bees are highly adapted to pollination because, unlike their relatives the wasps are carnivorous, bees are vegetarian and depend on the flowers to feed their young. In turn many flowers are adapted to the visits of bees in the aroma, color, design, etc.. A case of coevolution. Equipment for collection of pollen A few species of bees carry pollen more primitive mixed with nectar in the crop. But other bees have specialized organs. The scopa is a brush consisting of abundant setae. In most species the scopas are located in the hind legs, but in the bee family Megachilidae are located in the ventral part of the abdomen . Honeybees, the bees and other bees related to them, the family Apidae have specialized organs that scopas called corbiculae (or pollen baskets) on the hind legs. In addition to pollen bees harvest nectar , a high-energy food because it contains sugar. Pollen, on the other hand is rich in protein and good source of nutrition for the larvae. Oral Appliance The mouth parts are adapted to suck the nectar, with elongated components, forming a tube. A tube however is very different from Lepidoptera. Bees are considered more primitive 'language' short and can only sip nectar from flowers with open corollas. The more specialized bees, Apidae family, they have a 'tongue' long reaching deeper parts of flowers. Special Senses The organs of sight and smell of bees are adapted to find and identify flowers by their fragrance, colors and designs. The antennae are olfactory organs. The eyes perceive ultraviolet light and many flowers have designs that are visible only with this kind of vision. Most bee species are solitary, ie each female cares for her own offspring. Only a few species live in colonies or hives and have many workers who share tasks. Bees are eusocial , the best example of these is the honeybee. Eusocial bees need large amounts of nectar and pollen; visit many flowers, so they are very efficient pollinators. Some species of bees can collect nectar and pollen from a variety of flowers, others are quite specific in their preferences for pollen, are 'oligolecticas'. The male bees or orchid euglossine collect floral scents used to attract females and thus pollinate some species of orchids. The females of this group pollinate other flowers in the usual way. Another example of coadaptation special is the orchid Ophrys from Europe and the males of certain species of bees (or wasps). The flower has the look and smell similar to the pheromones of female bees such species (mimentismo) and males try to mate with them. Unlike bees, wasps larvae feed primarily on insects and spiders. However, the members of this group also visit many flowers to suck nectar for their energy value. This is a group with many species that includes 'wasp' parasitic and the 'true' wasps such as the families Sphecidae and Vespidae. Some examples of coadaptation are specialized wasps visiting orchids Ophris , already mentioned. Another example is that of the fig wasps. This is a very special case in which the female wasp enters the small fig, within which are numerous and tiny flowers. It lays its eggs in some of the future seed and visit the other depositing pollen brought fig in his hometown. There are many flies or flies are pollinators, especially flies the flowers, the family Syrphidae. Open corolla visit flowers primarily for nectar, but also by pollen, especially females need protein to mature their eggs. They are so well adapted to pollination and bees are not as hairy and have no organs for pollen transport, but in some cases pollinate. Flies of the families Empididae and Bombyliidae (especially the latter) have a long proboscis that enables them to reach the nectar of tubular flowers, deep and are important pollinators of such flowers. Certain plants are uniquely adapted to pollination by flies. Lured by deception, they smell and color and appearance of rotting flesh and carrion flies or flesh flies lay their eggs there. Other flowers smell like fungi and attract other flies. The flowers of the cacao are pollinated by small flies of the family Ceratopogonidae.
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